glass ceiling dissertation
Why not necessarily there ladies in mature management positions? Discuss with mention of the research around the ‘glass ceiling'
The phrase ‘glass ceiling' is a radical term coined in the 1970s and it is widely used to focus on and illustrate the emotional, social and economic obstacles that prevent women via securing top rated positions in their respective field. It is, consequently , important that a pluralistic way is taken up truly identify the elements that cause fewer ladies to be in senior managing positions. In describing the invisible obstacle as a a glass ceiling, it is strongly recommended that sexuality equality inside the work place can be an optical illusion as methodical discriminations continue to exist. Despite delete word a number of within women's equality over the year's traditional male or female roles remain relatively intact, often , towards the detriment of women's job. It is nearly expected that a woman's career or work must take a secondary part to as well as domestic obligations whilst men on the other hand can make higher commitment to work related progress. The result of this is more women try to preserve flexibility through on part-time positions, this means, lower pay out and very little chance of promo. It is noticeable that there is a tremendous difference involving the historical working patterns of women and males, with 90% of part-time positions being occupied by simply women throughout the European community during the nineties (Women of Europe Nutritional supplements, 1989) while a further two fifths of female part-time workers being employed in low-skilled, low-status jobs at the time (New Earnings Review, 1990).
Inside the cases where women are able to secure regular positions, all their career improvement is often stultified by perceptions and misjudgment of guy employers in whose discriminations depend on the presumptions that women are less committed to all their career. A married female hoping to gain a bureaucratic position, for instance , is likely to go through discrimination due to employers' perspective that she'd be significantly less flexible if a job necessary relocation or perhaps long periods abroad (Spencer Stuart & Co-workers Ltd. 1993). Interestingly, this view is usually not organised as highly when looking at wedded male applicants for managerial positions, suggesting that there is a great underlining opinion that men have more autonomy within their family and are, consequently , in a better position for making such pivotal decisions.
Widely organised gender stereotypes based on the views that girls are not intense enough to get authoritative positions and are the natural way good care givers means that occupational gender segregation occurs both equally horizontally and vertically. The effect of both equally forms of segregation is evident in the disproportionately high percentage of women in the care sector in spite of the top positions being traditionally occupied by males. Figures showed that in the mid 1990s simply 3 % of elderly managers were females even though approximately 97 per cent of secretaries and a further 87 per cent clerical worker had been females (Employment department, 1992).
It could be argued on one hand, that this is caused by many women needing more flexible positions and thus within fulfil the demands of a managerial position. Yet , those women who do satisfy the organisations requirements still have to contend with preconceived ideas of women inadequate leadership characteristics such an assertiveness and competiveness. Interestingly, past oppositionist in Trade and Union, Baroness Jean Denton pointed out that the problem with girls gaining leading positions is definitely not in men not wanting women but rather in men not so sure them. Frequently you may listen to people declare ‘It is definitely not what you know, it is who you know' to illustrate how job range of motion can be obtained but it could possibly be argued this is seriously affected by types gender because the ‘old boy network' mean job networking can have a high level of gender exclusivity. This immediately affects ladies chances of completing senior supervision positions because despite...